People have two sets of teeth in their
lives, the primary teeth (also called the baby,
milk or deciduous teeth) and the permanent teeth
(also called the adult or secondary teeth). Children
have 20 primary teeth; they are replaced by the
permanent teeth by about age 13. Adults have 32
Teeth are used to bite and chew food-
they are the first step in the digestion of food. The
long, sharp canine teeth tear up food (like meat). The
wide, flat molars grind and mash up food. While we chew
food, the tongue pushes the food to the teeth and saliva
helps digestion and wets the food.
Teeth also help us say certain sounds. The shape of the arch inside the
mouth helps you talk. Many letters of the alphabet cannot be sounded without the
help of teeth.
babies are born with no teeth showing (the teeth are forming inside the
gums). The 20 primary teeth (also called baby teeth or first teeth) erupt
(poke through the gums) over the time from when a baby is from about 6
months to a year old.
teeth fall out and are replaced by 32 permanent teeth (also called the adult
teeth). This happens over the time from when a child is from about 6 to 14
permanent tooth forms under the gums and in the jawbone, the roots of the
primary tooth it is replacing dissolve. Then the primary tooth becomes loose
and falls out. The permanent tooth will fill the space.
teeth (also called the third molars) are molars that usually erupt from the
ages of 17 to 21.
vary in size, shape and their location in the jaws. These differences enable
teeth to work together to help you chew, speak and smile. They also help
give your face its shape and form. At birth people usually have 20 primary
(baby) teeth, which often erupt as early as six months of age. They are then
shed at various times throughout childhood. By age 21, all 32 of the
permanent teeth have usually erupted.
tooth has two primary components: the crown and root.
The crown is the portion of the tooth that projects above the gums while the
root is that portion that anchors the tooth to the bone.
are composed of 4 tissues. The enamel covers the crown of the
teeth and is the hardest known substance in the human body. This extreme
hardness is necessary to survive the powerful forces exerted on the tooth
surface during chewing.
the enamel is the dentin forming the bulk of the tooth.
Cementum covers the root portion of the tooth and gives attachment
to certain fibers called periodontal ligament that help the tooth attach to
The Pulp is the innermost part of the tooth containing the nerves,
blood vessels and other cells. The pulp is the vital area of the tooth.
Gums are soft tissues that cover the tooth like a collar.
have different shapes for different jobs. For example, when you eat, the
upper teeth work together with the lower teeth of the same shape to bite,
chew, and tear food. The names of these teeth are
(Central & Lateral)
There are eight incisors located in the front of the mouth (four on the top
four on the bottom). They have sharp, chisel-shaped crowns that cut
- The four cuspids are next
to each incisor. Cuspids have a pointed edge to tear food.
Also called bicuspids, the four pairs of premolars are located next to the
cuspids. They crush and tear food.
There are twelve molars,
in sets of three, at the back of the mouth. They have wide surfaces that
help to grind food.
have 32 teeth. Depending on their age, children may have fewer because they
lose baby teeth as adult teeth grow. In addition to chewing, teeth help you
to speak clearly.
also give your face its shape and add to the way you look. Not only do
clean, healthy teeth help you look good, they contribute to total body
health and well-being. And a smile always helps you look your best.”
thorough brushing is a very important step in preventing tooth decay and gum
disease. Brushing removes the bacteria that promote tooth decay and the
plaque that can cause gum disease.
you should brush after every meal, because the bacterial attack on teeth
begins minutes after eating. At the very least, brush once a day and always
before you go to bed. Brushing your teeth isn't complicated, but there is a
right and a wrong way. We do it every day without thinking too much, but
there are some important points to remember when brushing your teeth
Here are a
few tips to help your brush better:
some toothpaste onto a soft-bristled toothbrush. Your toothpaste should
back-and-forth brushing motions to clean the outside and inside surfaces of
the teeth, as
well as the chewing surfaces. Follow with up-and-down
motions to clean the inside surfaces of the
every surface of every tooth. The chewing surface, the cheek side, and
the tongue side.
your brush. A thorough brushing should take at least two to three
minutes. Try timing
along the gum line. This is extremely important, as gum disease starts here.
Brush gently to
avoid damaging your gums.
to brush your back molars, where bacteria like to hide.
tongue to remove bacteria that cause bad breath.
the toothpaste and rinse your mouth with water or mouthwash.
9.Use a soft
brush with rounded bristles. The right toothbrush cleans better. Choose a
size and shape
that allow you to reach all the way to your back teeth.
There are many different types of brushes, so
ask your dentist to suggest the best one for you. It is
recommended you replace your toothbrush
every three months.
10.Try to floss at least once
a day, since most adult
cavities occur between teeth. The most important
time to floss is before going to bed. Floss before or after you brush' either is fine. Guide the floss
between the teeth and use it to gently rub the side of each tooth.
Flossing removes plaque and bacteria that you
cannot reach with your toothbrush. If you don't floss, you are missing more
than one-third of your tooth surface. Plaque is the main cause of gum
disease. It is an invisible bacterial film that develops on your teeth every
Within 24 to 36 hours, plaque hardens into
tartar (also called calculus) which can only be removed by professional
cleaning. Floss at least once a day, and plaque never gets the chance to
harden into tartar. Getting into the habit of daily flossing is easier when
you floss while doing something else like watching TV or listening to music,
the suggested way to floss right:
- Take a length of floss equal to the distance from your hand to your
shoulder. Wrap it around your index and middle fingers, leaving about two
inches between your hands.
- Slide the floss between your teeth and wrap it into a "C" shape
around the base of the tooth and gently under the gumline. Wipe the tooth
from base to tip two or three times.
- Be sure to floss both sides of every tooth. Don't forget the backs of
your last molars. Go to a new section of the floss as it wears and picks up particles.
Step 4 -
Brush your teeth after you floss — it is a more effective method of
preventing tooth decay and gum disease.
Gums sometimes bleed when you first begin to floss. Bleeding usually stops
after a few days. If bleeding does not stop, see your dentist. Floss can
shred if you snag it on an old filling or on the ragged edge of a tooth. Try
another type of floss or dental tape. Ask your dentist for advice. If your
floss still shreds, see your dentist.
Orthodontics is the science of straightening and correcting teeth and any
impaired (mismatched) growth of the jaws.
Treatment During treatment Post
Who needs orthodontic treatment?
·Children as well as adults,
are choosing to have orthodontic treatment for several reasons:
-Malocclusion -Tooth Mal-alignment
-Unhappy with appearance of
·During the preteen and
teenage years, the jaws are growing and maturing; therefore it is easier to
teeth at this stage rather than later on in adulthood.
·More adults are choosing to
have orthodontic treatment in order to improve the appearance of their
Since their jaws are no longer growing. Treatment may take a little
What is Malocclusion?
Malocclusion is the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws. It is a
variation of normal growth and development, which can affect the bite, the
ability to clean teeth properly, gum tissue health, jaw growth, speech
development and appearance.
three basic categories of malocclusions.
The first category consists of dental problems,
in which the teeth (for various reasons) don’t have the correct position on
their osseous base (dentoalveolus), and as a result they appear crowded,
spaced or rotated. Usually these problems are not visible when the mouth is
The second category consists of skeletal problems,
where the jaws have not grown harmoniously and that in turn has a negative
effect on the function of the mouth and the esthetics of the face. In this
category the goal of orthodontic treatment is to correct the position of the
teeth and restore the balance of the face.
Finally, in the third category the patient has a
combination of dental and skeletal problems, which not only affect
the oral cavity but also the esthetics of the face.
Orthodontics is not only used to improve your
appearance. The main purpose of treatment is to get teeth into proper
occlusion so as to improve the overall stability of your oral cavity.
Malocclusion or malaligned teeth can have long term effects, such as:
Interference with normal growth and development of the jaws.
Abnormal swallowing patterns
Abnormal Facial Muscle function
Impairment of chewing
Susceptibility to cavities due to the difficulty of removing plaque from
Vulnerability to accidents or fractured teeth (if your front teeth stick
out, they may be more easily
are the goals of any orthodontic procedure? To create:
do the braces do to the teeth?
Teeth can slowly be moved and shifted into
proper position by applying pressure in certain directions.
Bands, Wires and elastics are placed on the
teeth to move them in the right direction. This takes place slowly and
carefully over an extended period of time. Shifting teeth back into a
functional position can take months to years, but eventually you will have a
new and improved mouth and a longer lasting smile. Retainers are often used
after the braces, to hold the teeth in their new position until they are
It is important to wear the braces or an appliance for however long the
dentist suggests. If you quit at any point during the treatment, the teeth
can shift back into their old position.
Suggestions for maintaining your Braces
collect food and dental plaque very easily. If proper oral hygiene is
neglected during orthodontic treatment both tooth decay and periodontal
disease can occur easily.
It is very
important to maintain a daily plaque control program. Such a program may be
soft toothbrush should be used. A special orthodontic toothbrush can also be
used to brush your teeth.
with braces on takes more time than usual. Superfloss or floss threaders can
aid in flossing, and make
it more time efficient.
interdental brush can be used to fit between the wire and the tooth to
remove hard-to-reach plaque and
irrigators can be used along with brushing and flossing. This helps remove
food debris and plaque.
mouthwash containing fluoride can be used to help prevent cavities from
foods should be avoided since they can bend the wires, loosen the bands, or
break the brackets
(braces). Fruits and raw vegetables should be cut
up into smaller pieces and chewed on the back teeth.
foods such as chewing gum, hard candies, & toffees should be avoided as they
can bend and break the
wires and brackets.
high in sugar should also be avoided, since this will increase the chances
of tooth decay.
dental appointments are important to monitor the health of teeth and gums
during orthodontic treatment.
is lot of work and taking care of the braces is not easy, but in the end,
the results will be worthwhile when you have your new and improved smile.…and
remember, be proud to give a silver smile!
Root canal treatment, also known as endodontic
treatment, is a dental procedure in which the diseased or damaged pulp
(core) of a tooth is removed and the inside areas (the pulp chamber and root
canals) are filled and sealed.
do I need it?
The pulp, or soft inner tissue of your
tooth, is normally surrounded and protected by a layer of dentin. Above the
gumline, a layer of enamel protects the dentin; below the gumline, the
dentin is covered by cementum. When a deep cavity, decay or crack destroys
these protective layers, the pulp is exposed to the bacteria in your mouth.
This can result in inflammation, infection and, eventually, necrosis (pulp
death). A severe blow to the tooth can also damage the pulp. Irritants may
then escape from the end of the root and cause a diseased area (apical
lesion) in the bone. Pus accumulates at the ends of the roots, forming a
painful abscess (Pus filled cavity usually seen in this condition in
side the mouth), which can damage the bone supporting the teeth. Such an
infection may produce pain that is severe, constant, or throbbing, as well
as prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, swelling and tenderness in the
surrounding gums, facial swelling, and discoloration of the tooth. However,
in some cases, the pulp may die so gradually that there is little noticeable
canal treatment removes the damaged pulp and irritants. This allows the bone
surrounding the root end to repair and heal.
Common signs of pulp problems include:
when biting down on a tooth
Sensitivity to hot or cold food or beverages
gums around the infected tooth
Couldn’t I just have the tooth removed?
You could get it removed, but then adjoining
teeth may shift and interfere with biting and chewing. You can have a
replacement tooth implanted or attached to adjacent healthy teeth, but this
can be expensive and require even more dental treatment. There is no real
substitute for your own natural tooth, which is more efficient in chewing
and biting than an artificial one.
What happens during root canal treatment?
An examination, including X-rays, will
be performed. A local anesthetic will be given, if necessary. A sheet of
rubber latex, called a “rubber dam,” will/may be placed around the tooth to
isolate it and keep it clean and dry during treatment.
root canal treatment usually consists of the following five basic steps:
An opening is made in the crown of the tooth. Creating this access also
relieves the pressure inside the tooth and can dramatically ease pain.
The pulp is removed
from the pulp chamber and root canals. The dentist determines the length of
the root canals, usually with a series of X-rays. Tiny instruments (“files”)
are used to clean the root canals and shape them to a form that will ensure
they will be well sealed. A temporary filling is placed in the opening to
seal the opening and protect the tooth between appointments.
The root canals are filled and sealed with a material that prevents bacteria
from re-entering. The opening in the crown of the tooth is sealed with a
temporary filling. Radiographs (X-rays) are made before, during and after
At the next appointment, the temporary filling will be replaced with a
permanent filling and then with a ceramic / porcelain crown. Root canal treatment is not
complete without the placement of a crown/cap.
The root canal, permanent filling, and/or crown are
evaluated for healing at periodic intervals called recall appointments.
this procedure going to hurt?
With modern techniques and anesthetics
people report that having a root canal treatment is about as painless as
having a cavity filled. Should you experience any discomfort, call your
dentist, who will do everything possible to make you comfortable.
What care should be taken after the root canal treatment?
The tooth may be sore or you may
experience pain/discomfort for several days after the filling. Pain
relievers, may be taken to ease the soreness as prescribed by the dentist.
The tissues around the tooth may also be irritated. Rinsing the mouth with
warm salt water several times a day will help. Chewing on that side of the
mouth may need to be avoided for the first few days following treatment. A
follow-up appointment should be scheduled with the dentist for six months
after treatment to make sure the tooth and surrounding structures are
long will my teeth last after this treatment?
Although the pulp is removed, your tooth
remains alive, nourished by surrounding bone and gum tissues. With a
permanent restoration (crown), regular brushing and flossing, proper diet
and periodic dental checkups, your tooth has an excellent chance for
need to know after a Root Canal treatment:
Most patients experience a little soreness after the appointment. This may
be due to the injection, the necessity of keeping the mouth open for a
long time, or the treatment. Your temporary filling will be hard enough to
bite on within approximately a half-hour, but avoid biting or chewing on
the treated tooth if it hurts.
Over-the-counter pain relievers usually relieve the discomfort. Should
pain last more than a few days, or if severe pain or swelling occur, call
your dentist. Remember, if your tooth hurt before you came in for
treatment, it may take a while to heal.
When your root canal treatment is complete, a temporary filling is placed.
The tooth needs to be permanently restored to prevent contamination or
fracture, so you will need to return for a permanent restoration. It is
important to return promptly because the temporary filling can loosen and
leak, possibly causing the root canal treatment to fail, which would
Myths About Root Canal Treatment
There are many misconceptions surrounding root
canal (endodontic) treatment. As always, when considering any medical
procedure, you should get as much information as you can about all of your
options. Your dentist or endodontist can answer many of your questions.
Myth #1: Root
Canal treatment is Painful Truth—Root canal
treatment doesn't cause pain, it relieves it. Most patients see their
dentist or endodontist when they have a severe toothache. Damaged tissues in
the tooth can cause the toothache. Root canal treatment removes this damaged
tissue from the tooth, thereby relieving the pain you that you feel.
The perception of root canals being painful
began decades ago when root canal treatment was painful. But with the latest
technologies and anesthetics, root canal treatment today is as easy /
comfortable like having a filling placed. In fact, a recent survey showed
that patients who have experienced root canal treatment are six times more
likely to describe it as "painless" than patients who have not had root
Myth #2 : Root
canal Treatment Causes Illness (Fever) Truth—Root canal
treatment is a safe and effective procedure.
Research conducted over the years showed no relationship between root canal
treated teeth and the presence of illness(Fever). Instead, researchers found
that people with root canal fillings were no more likely to be ill than
people without them.
The presence of bacteria in teeth and mouth has
been an accepted fact for many years. But presence of bacteria does not
necessarily mean there should be "infection" and is not necessarily a threat
to a person's health. Bacteria are present in the mouth and teeth at all
times, even in teeth that have never had a cavity or other trauma.
One of the causes for illness in earlier days may be due to improper
sterilization procedures. But in modern day dentistry today sterilization if
all instruments is of utmost priority which has almost totally eradicated
the event of causing illness.
It is now well known that teeth that receive
proper root canal treatment do not cause illness.
Myth #3—A good
alternative to root canal treatment is extraction (pulling out the tooth). Truth—Saving your
natural teeth, if possible, is the very best option.
Nothing can completely replace your natural tooth. An artificial tooth can
sometimes cause you to avoid certain foods. Keeping your own teeth is
important so that you can continue to enjoy the wide variety of foods
necessary to maintain the proper nutrient balance in your diet.
Root Canal treatment, along with appropriate
permanent restoration (cap or crown), is a cost-effective way to treat teeth
with damaged pulp and is usually less expensive than extraction and
placement of a bridge or an implant.
Root Canal treatment also has a very high
success rate. Many root canal treated teeth last a lifetime.
Placement of a bridge or an implant will
require significantly more time in treatment and may result in further
procedures to adjacent teeth and supporting tissues.
of properly root canal treated teeth serve patients all over the world, for
years and years after treatment. Those healthy teeth are helping patients
chew efficiently, maintain the natural appearance of their smiles and
enhance their enjoyment of life. Through root canal treatment, Endodontists
and dentists worldwide enable patients to keep their natural teeth for a
disease is a common dental problem that may result in tooth loss. Gingivitis
and Periodontitis are the most common types of adult gum disease.
teeth and gums are maintained by daily plaque removal from all surfaces of
the tooth (through tooth brushing and interdental cleaning)
The following features characterize healthy
coral pink color, (normal variations in color depend on race and
'Orange-peel' texture (known as stippling)
that follows the contour of the teeth and forms a scalloped edge
of redness, swelling or inflammation
bleeding during daily plaque removal
is inflammation of the gum tissue. The gums are irritated and swollen due to
a plaque or calculus (tartar) buildup along the gumline. The gums may be
sore, bleed easily and appear puffy, soft and swollen. No bone structure is
lost around the teeth at this stage of gum disease. Blood on the toothbrush
or dental floss is one of the earliest and most common signs of gingivitis.
Your gums should never bleed while brushing or flossing. The good news about
gingivitis is that it is preventable and reversible through good brushing
and flossing techniques (or other interdental tooth cleansing). On the other
hand, if oral hygiene habits are poor, gingivitis may progress to
Is Periodontal Disease?
Periodontal disease is destruction of bone and the structures supporting the
teeth. Unfortunately Periodontitis is irreversible, but you can stop its
progression through good oral hygiene and visiting your dental professional.
Warning Signs of Periodontal Disease:
that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth
that are red, swollen or tender
that have pulled away from teeth
Infection including purulence (pus) between the teeth and gums when the
gums are pressed
Permanent teeth that are loose or separating
changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
changes in the fit of your partial denture
Early And Moderate Periodontitis:
Periodontitis occurs when the inflammation of the gums progresses into the
deeper underlying structures and bone.
most common form of Periodontitis, plaque (and sometimes calculus) is
found below the gumline.
may feel irritated, appear bright red, and bleed easily.
ligaments holding the tooth in its socket break down and the gums pull
away from the teeth, resulting in a periodontal pocket or space between
the tooth and gum.
The periodontal pocket deepens and fills with more bacteria. Supportive
ligaments and bone start to show damage.
Calculus and plaque do not have to be evident to the
naked eye for periodontal
disease to be present. You need regular examinations performed by
your oral health
professional to assess your periodontal health and determine if
is active in your mouth.
After non-surgical periodontal therapy (i.e. scaling). The gums have been
restored to health. Notice the gums have receded, exposing the root of the
tooth. This is due to the irreversible bone loss as a result of previous
periodontal disease. This can lead to tooth
Periodontitis progresses to the advanced stage, the gums severely recede
(pull away from the tooth); pockets deepen and may be filled with pus.
may be swelling around the root and you may experience sensitivity to hot
or cold or feel pain when brushing your teeth. This is due to the severely
receding gums exposing the root surface.
loss increases, your teeth may lose so much support that they need to be
removed to preserve the overall health
of your mouth.
periodontal disease: further progression of Periodontitis with major loss of
bone support. The teeth may lose so much support that they may be loose
gum disease is usually not painful. It can progress slowly. You may not even
be aware of it until the advanced stages, when the tooth is in danger of
being lost. Check your gums thoroughly and regularly. It is also important
to go for regular checkups (at an interval schedule determined through
collaboration with your oral health professional, based on your own personal
needs). Your dental hygienist can detect the early stages of gum disease,
when it is the easiest to treat.
Protecting your periodontal health brings many benefits. You can chew with
more comfort. You can smile and speak with greater confidence. You can keep
dental costs down by preventing further problems. A commitment to
maintenance therapy is a commitment to better health.
method of replacing missing teeth. Research shows that 85% of people who
wear full or partial dentures experience some related discomfort and
difficulty. Dental implants can eliminate those problems, restore
self-confidence and improve the quality of life. From a single missing tooth
to an entire set of teeth, dental implants can provide a permanent
alternative to problem dentures, and help prevent the premature loss of
remaining teeth. Dental implants can last a lifetime and are an excellent
investment in oral health
What are dental implants?
Dental implants are made of biocompatible materials that become directly
attached to your jawbone. In dental terms, this is called
“osseointegration.” Once anchored in place, your implants can be used to
replace a missing tooth, support an entire set of teeth or retain an
overdenture. The result is a natural type of tooth replacement that can
restore the biting and chewing ability you once enjoyed, improve your
appearance and renew your self-confidence.
What procedures are used to insert dental implants?
Placement of dental implants is a minor surgical procedure performed in one
or two office visits. If you have one-stage implants, their metal tops will
extend through the gums while your tissues heal, and you will not need a
second surgery. If you have two-stage implants, they will be placed under
the gums while the bone heals. You will need a second, simple surgery to
uncover them and attach a post to support your replacement teeth. Your
dentist’s decision to do a one- or two-stage surgical procedure depends on a
number of clinical factors, such as the amount of available bone and
location of the implants. After the implants are placed, the bone attaches
to them and permanently anchors them within your jaw. In the meantime, your
dentist may adjust your full denture or partial prosthesis for temporary
not extra teeth like most of us think. They are part of our normal set of
teeth. Each one of us has 32 teeth. 28 would have erupted into the mouth by
the time we are 13 years of age. The last four, one in each end of the upper
and lower jaws are the wisdom teeth. There is a sequence of eruption and it
just so happens that the wisdom teeth are the last ones to erupt at the age
of 18 to 24 years of age. By then there is usually a lack of space for them
to erupt properly and so most are always stuck(IMPACTED). So we always have
this idea that they are extras!
need to remove them?
criteria most Dental Surgeons will have to determine whether that wisdom
tooth of yours need to be removed.
have given you gum pains before. These pains will usually subside after
some medications and then will recur at a later date. No one can predict
the frequency and severity of these recurring pains. They may or may not
be accompanied by swelling and pustulent products.
have caused cavities in the teeth in front of them due to food trapping or
they themselves have cavities from food trappings. These are usually
determined by the dental surgeons after a check up or through x-rays
interfere with the treatment you are having. Usually this will happen in
those who seek braces treatment.
constant causes of food trapping and irritation.
What is an Impacted Wisdom
Tooth ? A
tooth becomes impacted due to lack of space in the dental arch and its
eruption is therefore prevented by gum, bone, another tooth or all three.
Lack of space occurs because our jaws have become smaller (through
evolution), we do not loose teeth through decay as frequently as in the
past, and our diet is such that our teeth do not wear down as much.
are they removed?
two methods of removing wisdom teeth. They can be by simple extraction or
they are removed by simple minor surgical procedures. These are determined
by their degree of impaction. Removing wisdom teeth either by extraction or
surgery can be performed under local anaesthesia or under general
anaesthesia means that they can be done in the clinic when you are fully
awake or sedated.
anaesthesia will mean removing them while you are asleep and is usually done
in a hospital environment under Day Surgery. i.e, you go home about four
hours after the procedure is performed. These can be carried out either in
the private hospitals or restructured hospitals. The surgeons can be private
practitioners or from government service.
healing process begins
immediately after surgery as your body sends blood to nourish the tooth
socket. Simple pressure from a piece of gause is usually all that is needed
to control the bleeding and to help a blood clot to form in the socket,
which promotes healing. Within a day or two, soft tissue begins to fill in
the socket, aided by the blood clot. Eventually, the bone surrounding the
socket begins to grow, eventually filling in the socket completely, as
there is a possibility of a swelling developing in the area which is normal
and will reduce within a short time)
Pro's and Con's of Wisdom Tooth Removal
Pro's of Removing a Wisdom Tooth:
teeth may be hard to access with your toothbrush or floss. Over time, the
accumulation of bacteria, sugars and acids may cause a cavity to form in
the tooth. If it is not restored with a filling, the cavity may spread and
destroy more tooth structure causing severe consequences to the tooth and
surrounding supportive structures.
the difficulty of keeping these teeth clean with your daily home care
(brushing and flossing), bacteria and food debris remaining on the wisdom
teeth may produce a foul smell-causing bad breath.
tooth that is still under the gums in a horizontal position (rather than a
vertical position) may exert pressure to the surrounding teeth, causing
crowding and crooked teeth. This also may occur if there is not enough
space in the mouth for the wisdom tooth. This may warrant braces to repair
tooth that is still under the gums may become irritated. The gum tissue
that lays over the tooth may harbor food debris and bacteria that gets
trapped under the gum, resulting in an infection in the gums.
Con's of Removing the Wisdom Teeth:
Depending on the size shape and position of the tooth, removal can vary
from a simple extraction to a more complex extraction. With a simple
extraction, there is usually little swelling, bruising and/or bleeding.
More complex extraction will require special treatment, which may result
in more bruising, swelling and bleeding. However, your dental professional
will provide you with post treatment instructions to minimize these side
Following an extraction, a condition called "dry socket" may occur. If the
blood clot that formed in the extraction area becomes dislodged, it
exposes the underlying bone. This condition is very painful, but resolves
after a few days. It is preventable by following the post treatment
instructions provided by your dental professional.
longer you wait and the older you get, there is the potential for more
problems to occur. This is because as you get older, the bone surrounding
the tooth becomes more dense, making the tooth more difficult to remove.
The healing process may also be slower.
Do Not Disturb the Wound - In
doing so you may invite irritation, infection and/or bleeding. Chew on the
opposite side for the first 24 hours.
Do Not Smoke for 12 Hours -
Smoking will promote bleeding and interfere with healing.
Do Not Spit or Suck Through a Straw
- This will promote bleeding and may dislodge the blood clot, which could
result in a dry socket.
Control of Bleeding - If the
area is not closed with stitches, a pressure pack made of folded sterile
gauze pads will be placed over the socket. It is important that this pack
stay in place to control bleeding and to encourage clot formation. The
gauze is usually kept in place for 30 minutes. If the bleeding has not
stopped once the original pack is removed, place a new gauze pad over the
Control of Swelling
After surgery, some swelling usually expected mainly due to the reason
that in some cases some bone covering that particular tooth may need to be
removedwhich leads to swelling. This can be controlled through the use of
cold packs (ice cube wrapped in a hand towel or kerchief.A cold pack is
usually placed at the site of swelling during the first 24 hours in a
cycle of 20 minutes on and 20 minutes off.
After the first 24 hours, it is advisable to rinse with warm saltwater
every two hours to promote healing. (one teaspoon of salt to eight ounces
of warm water).
Medication for Pain Control -
Anti-inflammatory medication such as Ibuprofen is used to control minor
discomfort following oral surgery. The dentist may prescribe stronger
analgesics if the patient is in extreme discomfort.
Diet and Nutrition - A soft
diet may be prescribed for the patient for a few days following surgery.
Following the removal of your wisdom teeth it
is important that you call your dentist if any unusual bleeding, swelling or
pain occurs. The first 6-8 hours after the extraction are typically the
worst, but are manageable with ice packs and pain medication. You should
also plan to see your dentist approximately one week later to ensure
everything is healing well.
It is very
important to talk to your dentist about extraction procedure, risks,
possible complications and outcomes of the removal of these teeth. A dentist
may do the actual extraction or it may be referred to an oral surgeon, who
is a specialist in the field. This decision is based on the dentist’s
preference and the unique features severity of each individual case.
way to keep your teeth white is to brush twice a day, floss daily, see your
dentist for regular checkups and professional cleanings, and limit
stain-causing foods and habits. These include: tobacco, certain foods and
beverages (such as coffee, tea and berries), some drugs (such as
tetracycline), or trauma to a tooth. As well, your teeth may become stained
or discoloured naturally as you age. Your dentist can give you the best
advice about whitening your teeth.
HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: Chairside bleaching
- usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes and one to three visits to the dental
office. A shield (or rubber dam) protects your gums from the bleaching agent
(usually a form of hydrogen peroxide), which is "painted" onto your
discolored teeth and activated with heat or high-intensity light.
- is done by you at home. You wear a custom-made mouthguard with special
bleaching gel (provided by your dentist) for a period of time each day, or
overnight, over a number of weeks.
important to know that not everyone's teeth will "whiten" the same. It
depends on the number of teeth involved and the severity of discoloration.
Over-the-counter, at-home whiteners are not recommended because they may
cause problems associated with over exposing gum tissues to the active
whitening agent. Any bleaching treatment should be done under your dentist's
Are you too self conscious to smile because
your teeth are chipped, discolored, or poorly spaced? Cheer up, your dentist
may be able to apply a porcelain laminate veneer to your teeth and give them
a whole new appearance. Veneers are strong, thin pieces of porcelain that
are bonded to the teeth. They are used to repair chipped, decayed or stained
teeth and for closing gaps between teeth. With a bit of contouring, veneers
can also rectify crowded or overlapping teeth. If your teeth have discolored
with age, a veneer may improve their appearance. Veneers can also be used
for cosmetic reasons instead of crowns, which are more often used for badly
damaged or decayed teeth.
HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: The tooth needs to be
ground down and the veneer replaces the ground off surface. Veneer
preparations frequently require the use of local anaesthetic and, depending
on color and shade, may take two or more appointments to complete. Ask your
dentist if veneers can help improve your smile.
The best way to keep your teeth white is to
brush twice a day, floss daily, see your dentist for regular checkups and
professional cleanings, and limit stain-causing foods and habits. These
include: tobacco, certain foods and beverages (such as coffee, tea and
berries), some drugs (such as tetracycline), or trauma to a tooth. As well,
your teeth may become stained or discoloured naturally as you age. Your
dentist can give you the best advice about whitening your teeth.
As children reach their teen years, the
appearance of their teeth can do much to promote a healthy self image and
Unfortunately, sometimes minor injuries occur,
or cavities develop in front teeth, and in the past, the only solution was
to fix or fill with typical amalgam, or go through an expensive capping or
crowning process in order to restore the teeth to a more natural appearance.
Modern technology has changed this. Cosmetic
bonding is basically the process of filling or fixing teeth with a
tooth-colored filling material in order to maintain appearance by way of a
beautiful and natural smile. Tooth-colored fillings are made from durable
plastics called composite resins. Similar in color and texture to natural
teeth, the fillings are much less noticeable and much more attractive than
other types of fillings.
Your child can smile, talk, and eat with
confidence. In addition, tooth-colored fillings are compatible with dental
sealants, and a tooth can be filled and sealed at the same time to prevent
Tooth colored fillings may not work in every
case, but for typical fillings and small restorations where appearance is
important, can do wonders to provide a natural appearance and confident
smile in your child.
Care for cosmetic fillings are the same as
normal care, brushing, flossing, and regular dental visits. We will
regularly check the fillings or repair for color change, leakage, or unusual
wear and inform you of the need for repair or replacement.
The latest fashion craze , this ready made tooth jewellery is available to
everyone including the rich and famous. Fitting takes about 10 to 15 minutes
is completely painless as there is no cutting of the tooth surface.
The jewellery is just cemented onto your tooth, the design can be changed
several times if you want to change your smile, or even go back to your
Some designs include diamonds and also rubies, please specify which shape
and if with diamond or ruby at time of ordering.
Painless Does Not Harm Tooth
Tooth Jewellery is the latest
a painless procedure, we fixe a jewel on the tooth surface. The jewel does
not damage tooth tissues and has no side effects – except for the increased
charm of your smile! Call it an oral fashion statement to stand out among
ordinary mortals or simply an effort to blend in with the bold and the
somebody thinks he or she was better off without tooth jewellery, it can be
easily removed without any side effects on the dental tooth structure as the
procedure is non-invasive. What's more, tooth jewellery can be fixed again
at a later stage.
know that about 30% of adults over age 65 no longer have any natural teeth?!
Tooth loss is more common in older folks who didn't have the benefit of
growing up with fluoride (a mineral that helps keep teeth
healthy and strong) in their water and other advances in dental care.
usually need dentures because they've lost teeth due to:
(say: per-ee-oh-dahn-tel) disease, or gum disease, which
is caused by a buildup of plaque (a film that sticks to your teeth) and
bacteria that attacks the gums.
decay (cavities), which happens in older adults more often because gums
recede (become soft and worn down) as people age.
problems get worse over time, especially if a person doesn't take care of
his/her teeth, doesn't regularly see a dentist for cleanings and tooth care,
or has health complications like diabetes or stroke. Some medications that
older people may need to take every day can dry out the mouth and prevent
good saliva flow, which is important in washing away food debris and keeping
the mouth healthy.
can you do to prevent anyone you know - as well as yourself - from needing
dentures in the future? Take care of your teeth and urge other kids and
adults you know to do so, too! Here's how:
Carefully and gently brush your teeth twice a day with a toothpaste
containing fluoride. Use a toothbrush with soft bristles, and try to
remember not to brush too hard, which can cause gums to recede. If your
toothbrush is all bent out of shape from the way you're brushing, then
you're brushing too hard!
know how long to brush? Put on your favorite song. You should brush almost
as long as the song.
to floss your teeth at least once a day.
the dentist twice a year for a professional cleaning and checkup. Tell the
dentist if you are experiencing gum pain or swollen gums or if your gums
bleed when you brush.
drink or smoke. Smoking or chewing tobacco increases the risk of gum
disease. Alone or paired with alcohol, tobacco increases the risk of
throat and mouth cancers.
plenty of water (six to eight glasses a day) and avoid sugary snacks and
soft drinks between meals.
Complete dentures replace all of the natural teeth in the upper or lower
jaw, or both, sitting on the soft (gum) tissue of the mouth that covers the
bone ridge. Your dentist may use several different procedures to make sure
your denture will fit the shape of your mouth, and provide the necessary
support for your face. The design of the complete denture and position of
the teeth will restore good speech and appearance.
of complete dentures
denture, also called a complete denture, replaces natural teeth and provides
support for cheeks and lips. Without support from the denture, facial
muscles can sag, making a person look much older. There are the following
types of complete dentures:
Conventional full denture:
after patient's remaining teeth are removed and the gum tissues have
healed, this kind of denture is made and placed inside the mouth. The
process for tissue healing may take months.
Immediate full denture: The
denture wearer does not have to wait during the healing period because
after teeth removal, this kind of denture is made and inserted into
are dentures made? Your dentist will take an impression of your jaw, along with measurements of
how your jaws relate to one another and how much space is between them (bite
relationship). The color (shade) of your teeth will also be determined
either from your natural teeth or a denture you may already be wearing. The
impression, bite and shade are given to the dental laboratory so a denture
can be made just for you.
The dental laboratory makes a mold (model) of your jaw, places the teeth in
a wax base, and carves the wax to the exact form wanted in the finished
denture. Usually a "wax try-in" of the denture will be done at the DENTAL
CLINIC so any adjustments can be done before the denture is completed.
The denture is completed at the dental laboratory using the "lost wax"
technique. A mold of the wax-up denture is made, the wax is removed and the
remaining space is filled with pink plastic in dough form. The mold is then
heated to harden the plastic. The denture is then polished and ready for the
patient to wear. Wearing Your Dentures It usually takes a little while to get used to wearing a full denture. There
may also be minor adjustments that your dentist will make to fine tune the
fit of your denture. After a few weeks, you will be more at ease and your
gums adapted to wearing a full denture.
It is very important that you wear your denture every day. If you don't wear
your denture for an extended period of time, the denture may no longer fit
as well as it should.
Over time, your mouth will change. The bone and gum areas may shrink or
recede, causing the space between the jaws to change. Because your denture
keeps its shape, adjustments will be needed to keep your denture fitting
properly. Always consult your dentist rather than trying to fix the problem
yourself. Trying to adjust them yourself will only cause more difficulties
and what may have started out as a small problem could easily become a
Getting Used to YourDenture
take a bit of time to get used to your new denture, particularly if it is
your first. Unfortunately, a complete denture will not feel like your teeth
did when you had them. They should, however, become comfortable and
functional with time.
At first you will have some difficulty with speaking and this is to be
expected. Some people describe this as trying to talk with a "mouth full of
marbles". Be patient; you will quickly adapt with practice and soon you will
find you can not speak properly without your denture. There is no way
to predict how long this will take, each patient adapts at a different rate.
Eating takes practice as well. The important thing to remember is that you
do not chew with your denture as you did when you had teeth. Natural teeth
chew in an up and down motion. Denture teeth, on the other hand, use
a side to side motion to mash down the food. Always cut your food
into small pieces for more effective denture chewing. It is unpredictable
how well you will adapt to eating. Some patients can chew just about
anything whereas others find they are limited in how well they can chew. All
patients, however do improve with practice, time, and a bit of patience.
Your denture will "settle in" in a short time and should fit well. The
dentist will gladly adjust for any sore areas that may develop.do not stop
wearing them if soreness develops,it needs adjustments. Report this to the
dentist immediately. Upper dentures usually fit snugly and stay in with
suction. The lower denture, however, does not develop this suction due to
the different shape of the lower jaw. The lower tends to "float". You will
learn with time how to help hold the lower stable by the way you use your
mouth while eating, speaking, and resting. Once again, this takes time and
it is not possible to predict how well each patient will adapt. Denture
adhesives can help but it is recommended you not use them during the first
few weeks of wearing your new denture.
Care for Your Denture
Keep your denture clean by brushing it with denture cleaning paste at least
once a day. Do this over a sink filled with water to prevent breakage in
case you drop the denture.
Take your denture out every night when you go to sleep. Place it in
some water in the box or cup with water Letting your denture dry out by not
storing in a cup of water will slightly change it's shape enough to
adversely effect the fit.
ü Occasionally soak
your denture in a commercial denture cleansing product which your dentist
may prescribe to help disinfect it
Rinse your mouth with mouthwash (without the denture) at least once a day to
keep your mouth clean. This helps cut down on the amount of bacteria and
fungus in the mouth which can lead to bad breath, denture sores, and
Make an appointment as soon as you develop any sores, change in fit, or any
other problem you would like us to address.
Life of your Dentures
care and cleaning will increase the life of your dentures. Although they
typically last five years, proper care and minimal jaw recession can extend
the life of dentures up to 25 years. Dentures should be cleaned daily with a
normal or specially-made denture toothpaste. In the case of tissue/bone
shrinkage, worn down teeth, or breakage, dentures may come loose and need to
decades ago unqualified dentists (quacks) provided certain dental treatment
that was not based on scientific principles and along with this kind of
assumption based treatment, myths developed which became imprinted in
people's minds. Dentistry today is an advanced specialized branch of medical
science based on scientific facts. Research in dental science has led to
better understanding of oral diseases and a systematic approach to treatment
based on facts became established. This advancement in dental science has
only reduced the myths and not completely eliminated it from the minds of
the people. In this article few of the myths, which still exist, are
presented along with their related facts for people to understand.
Myth - Removal of upper teeth affects
vision. Fact - There is a myth among many people that removal of
the upper teeth affects vision. This is a misconception. Vision is not
affected in any way by undertaking treatment of the upper teeth including
Myth - An artificial set of teeth or
complete denture that is made once is forever. Fact - While it is true that well fitting dentures are
used by the patient for many years, it is a myth that it can be retained
forever. The oral tissues that lie below the dentures change over a period
of time. But the dentures are made of stiff materials that do not adapt
according to the changing contours of the oral tissues. Thus even a well
fitting denture may not fit well after a few years. If an ill-fitting
denture is continued to be worn, it can cause damage to the underlying
tissues. Thus most dentists’ advice changing of the dentures once in at
least 5 years.
Myth - Professional cleaning/scaling/removal
of tartar loosens the teeth. Fact - Teeth are held firmly by the supporting tissues of
the periodontium including bone. Bad oral hygiene results in the
deposition of tartar /calculus on the tooth surface. These deposits
irritate the gums and can cause inflammation and bleeding of the gums. If
the tartar is not removed, the gums may recede and the supporting bone
around the teeth gets destroyed. The tartar on the teeth thus causes great
harm to the supporting tissues of the teeth. However, patients may
experience slight mobility of the teeth after tartar is removed as it kind
of binds the teeth together. Professional cleaning removes this tartar and
arrests further destruction of supporting bone. Removal of tartar deposits
only helps to recover the health of supporting structures. This chain of
events does not take place in people who have dental checkup regularly.
Myth- Dental procedures are always painful. Fact - Most dental procedures are carried out if the need
arises under local anesthesia, which makes the procedures totally
painless. In addition the modern day high-speed drills cause less
vibrations and are more comfortable for the patients.
Myth - Dental treatment should be avoided
during pregnancy. Fact - The above notion is not true. Many a times dental
treatment is provided even during late pregnancy. Routine dental
procedures can be carried out without any fear. However, some major
surgical procedure may require medical opinion before treatment. Dental
X-rays are to be avoided during the first three months of pregnancy.
Myth - Cleaning the teeth with finger &
powder is better than with toothbrush. Fact – The use of a toothbrush with bristles is to clean
plaque and food particles from almost all the surfaces of the teeth. The
finger may not reach all the areas as well as a brush does. Hence, it is
recommended to use a toothbrush with paste to clean the teeth and freshen
the mouth. Finger can only be used to massage the gums after brushing is
Myth - Charcoal, salt, rice husk, tobacco,
etc, in powder form is better than toothpaste in cleaning teeth. Fact - The objective of cleaning the teeth is to remove
the plaque and food particles on and around the teeth by the bristles of a
toothbrush with the help of a toothpaste or powder. A standard paste or
powder contains proper sized particles, which are not harmful to the
teeth. However, other powders are coarse and can erode the outer layer of
the teeth and permanently damage them. Hence, only standard toothpaste or
powder should be used with a toothbrush. Toothpaste is better than powder
as it can easily be dispensed on the brush and it may contain fluorides,
anti-tartar chemicals, etc. The foaming action of the toothpaste also
helps to freshen the mouth. Tobacco should not be used. Users enjoy
the euphoric effect of nicotine present in tobacco rather than cleaning of
the teeth and slowly become addicted to it. Hence, it should never be
Myth - Thumb sucking by children leads
to forward placement of upper teeth. Fact - Thumb sucking is a normal infant habit, which
makes the child feel secure and happy. It usually decreases after the age
of 3 years. However, if the habit persists beyond the age of 4-5 years it
can cause problems of the teeth including forward placement of the teeth.
In these children, depending upon the frequency and severity of the habit
an intervention of the habit by a dental surgeon may be required.
Myth - A child never needs cleaning of milk
teeth. Fact - It is a myth that we need not clean a child's
teeth. Children are as much prone for dental decay or gum diseases as
adults. In fact children tend to have sweet food including sweetened milk
and juices, which can promote dental decay. So it is advisable to start
the habit of cleaning the infant's teeth soon after they appear in the
mouth. In fact it is advised to clean baby’s gum pads everyday by gentle
massage even before the teeth erupt.
Myth - Milk teeth need not be cared for
because they last only for a few years, and these teeth will anyway be
replaced by permanent teeth. Fact - Early loss of milk teeth will interfere with
chewing and affect the child’s nutrition. Early loss of milk teeth leads
to drifting of the adjacent teeth and closure of some of the space that is
required for the succeeding permanent teeth to erupt into. Such a loss of
space will cause the permanent teeth to erupt in irregular position and
result in crowding. Therefore milk teeth need to be cared for as much as
Myth - When the gums bleed, it is better not
to brush the teeth. Fact -Bleeding of gums is a sign that they are
inflamed and are not healthy. This usually is a result of plaque and food
particles accumulating around the teeth. Until this collection is removed,
the gums continue to bleed. This is an indication that the individual
needs to visit a dentist for opinion and treatment. Brushing the teeth
with a soft toothbrush by the proper technique removes the plaque and
helps the gums recover. Initial bleeding seen during brushing gradually
reduces over a period of time.
Myth – Keeping an aspirin tablet beside a
painful tooth reduces the tooth pain. Fact - A toothache cannot be relieved by placing an
aspirin tablet anywhere in the mouth. In fact this is a dangerous habit as
it causes burns of the soft tissues around the area of placement. Hence,
aspirin tablets should not be placed in mouth but swallowed after eating
some food to relieve the pain.
Myth - When an artificial set of teeth are worn, the upper denture logically
has to fall down in the mouth and create problems, however the lower denture
that should rest in place does not stay. Fact - Although the lower denture rests on the ridges of
jaw, it does get easily dislodged because of the interference of the muscles
of check, lips tongue and movement of the jaw during function. However, with
time the muscles learn to co-ordinate with the lower denture and the patient
overcomes this problem. The upper denture, on the other hand stays in its
place due to creation of suction under the palate
·Make sure your children are
belted safely in their stroller and car seat.
·Ensure that the whole family
uses seat belts
·Wear a custom made mouth guard
while in “school” sports and during weekend sports and activities
·If you are away from home, be
sure to carry your doctor’s business card. So if you have a problem you can
call for a telephone consultation so he can help you decide whether you need
to seek immediate dental care.
· ·Many medications such as
antidepressants can cause this Consult with your Doctorr. to see if there
alternative medications that will not cause this
water in a spray bottle to keep your mouth moist. Try a little Lemon juice
in the water to stimulate your
sugarless gum to keep your mouth moist
moisturizing gel like oralbalance
saliva substitute such as glandosane.
·If the tooth is
broken/chipped/fractured and there is no other damage requiring hospital
care go to the dentist within 2-3 hours. Quick action can save the tooth,
prevent infection and reduce the need for extensive dental treatment. The
dentist can smooth minor chips. The tooth may also need to be restored with
a composite filling.
·Stop any bleeding by applying
direct gentle pressure to the gums. If an upper tooth, apply pressure to
the gums above the tooth. If a lower tooth, apply pressure to the gums
below the tooth. Do NOT press directly on the broken tooth.
Rinse the mouth with warm water
and apply cold compresses to reduce swelling.
·Find the broken tooth fragments
and bring the pieces with you; they may be able to be "cemented" back
·Eat only soft foods. Avoid this
side of your mouth when eating. Avoid food and drinks that are hot or cold,
eat only lukewarm
·The more the tooth is bothering
you before you go to the dentist the more difficult it is for the dentist to
treat you comfortably.
·If the pulp is damaged it can
mean a root canal.
·This tooth may need a full
permanent crown to protect if from further breakage and tooth loss.